Плотина Вайонт. Плотина вайонт италия


Плотина Вайонт — Википедия

Материал из Википедии — свободной энциклопедии

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Вайонт — арочная бетонная плотина рядом с горой Монте-Ток (англ.) на реке Вайонт, притоке реки Пьяве в провинции Беллуно на севере Италии, построенная в 1961 году, в основном, для выработки электроэнергии. Имеет высоту 261,6 м, длину по гребню 190 м, ширину по основанию 23 м и ширину по гребню, равную 3,9 м, за что считается одной из самых «изящных» плотин в мире.

По первоначальному проекту, образованное плотиной водохранилище должно было иметь объём 0,169 км³; после катастрофы 1963 года не заполнено, значительная часть первоначального водоема заполнена материалом оползня, произошедшего при аварии.

9 октября 1963 года около 22:35 по Гринвичу здесь произошла одна из самых крупных аварий в истории гидротехнического строительства, унёсшая жизни, по разным оценкам, от 2 до 3 тысяч человек. В чашу водохранилища за 45 секунд обрушился горный массив длиной 2 км, площадью 2 км² и объёмом около 0,2—0,3 км³, который до этого находился в состоянии незначительной подвижности. Чаша водохранилища оказалась заполненной горной породой до высоты 175 м над уровнем воды. Оползень вызвал перелив воды через гребень плотины объёмом более 50 млн м³ слоем 150—250 м (по разным источникам). Водяной вал, прошедший со скоростью 8—12 м/с по нижележащим территориям, имел высоту до 90 м. Было разрушено несколько сёл и деревень, погибли их жители. С момента возникновения оползня до полного разрушения объектов в нижнем бьефе прошло всего 7 минут.

Оползень, постепенно приходящий в движение, местами до 30 см/сутки, удавалось останавливать путём сброса воды с плотины, уровень вод спадал и движение останавливалось. Горные инженеры, обследовавшие оползень, не учли тот важный факт, что камень в массе горных пород был прослоен глиной, которая действовала как смазка и способствовала движению. Для прогнозирования последствий возможных катастроф, проводилось моделирование процесса обрушения, не предсказавшее опасных последствий. Высота волны, полученная при моделировании, составила 20—25 м. Непосредственно перед катастрофой, уровень воды в водохранилище был сброшен на 25 метров. Никто не беспокоился о возможной опасности, все были уверены в предсказанных результатах.

Основными причинами, вызвавшими оползень, считаются[1]:

Плотина устояла, хотя и испытала нагрузку, в несколько раз превысившую расчетную. На уровне гребня было смыто лишь около метра бетона.

Всего за семь минут вода произвела следующие разрушения: волна полностью разрушила пять деревень в долине реки Пьяве (Вилланова, Лонгароне, Пираджо, Ривальта и Фаз), а также подвергла серьезным разрушением ещё несколько населенных пунктов. В потоках грязи, камней и воды погибло от 1900 до 2500 человек (некоторые источники говорят о 3000 жертв).

В то же время, благодаря катастрофе в этом регионе началась бурная индустриализация, так как пострадавшие районы получили множество экономических льгот. Правительство Италии и компания SADE долго вели ожесточенные споры, которые прекратились после осуждения (на очень малые сроки) нескольких инженеров. Через пять лет после катастрофы один из ведущих инженеров под тяжестью вины покончил жизнь самоубийством.

Изначально рядом с плотиной планировалось построить ГЭС (а позже возвести целый каскад плотин), однако от этого проекта отказались.

  • Т. Уолтхэм. Катастрофы: неистовая Земля. Пер с англ. — Л.: «Недра», 1982. — 223 с.

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Плотина Вайонт - WikiVisually

1. Страна – A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography. Sometimes the word countries is used to both to sovereign states and to other political entities, while other times it refers only to states. The word country comes from Old French contrée, itself derived from Vulgar Latin contrata and it most likely entered the English language after the Franco-Norman invasion during the 11th century. Areas much smaller than a state may be called by names such as the West Country in England, the Black Country, Constable Country. In many European countries the words are used for sub-divisions of the territory, as in the German Bundesländer. The modern Italian contrada is a word with its meaning varying locally, the term country is frequently used to refer to sovereign states. There is no agreement on the number of countries in the world. There are 206 sovereign states, of which 193 states are members of the United Nations, all are defined as states by declarative theory of statehood and constitutive theory of statehood. The latest proclaimed state is South Sudan in 2011, the Kingdom of Denmark, a sovereign state, comprises Metropolitan Denmark and two nominally separate countries—the Faroe Islands, and Greenland—which are almost fully internally self-governing. The Kingdom of the Netherlands, a state, comprises four separate countries, Netherlands, Aruba, Curaçao. The degree of autonomy of non-sovereign countries varies widely, some are possessions of sovereign states, as several states have overseas territories, with citizenry at times identical and at times distinct from their own

2. Италия – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France, Spain and Austria. Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, Italia, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world

3. Река – A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water, small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill. There are no official definitions for the term river as applied to geographic features. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location, examples are run in parts of the United States, burn in Scotland and northeast England. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always, Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the study of rivers while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Extraterrestrial rivers of liquid hydrocarbons have recently found on Titan. Channels may indicate past rivers on other planets, specifically outflow channels on Mars and rivers are theorised to exist on planets, a river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, and ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel. This distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred, especially in areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become greatly developed by housing. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i. e. against the direction of flow. Likewise, the term describes the direction towards the mouth of the river. The term left bank refers to the bank in the direction of flow. The river channel typically contains a stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water. Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide and they also occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are similar to braided rivers and are quite rare

4. Плотина – A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by not only suppress floods but also provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use, aquaculture. Hydropower is often used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity, a dam can also be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams generally serve the purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. The word dam can be traced back to Middle English, and before that, from Middle Dutch, the first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. However, there is one village, Obdam, that is mentioned in 1120. The word seems to be related to the Greek word taphos, so the word should be understood as dike from dug out earth. The names of more than 40 places from the Middle Dutch era such as Amsterdam and Rotterdam, early dam building took place in Mesopotamia and the Middle East. Dams were used to control the level, for Mesopotamias weather affected the Tigris. The earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan,100 kilometres northeast of the capital Amman and this gravity dam featured an originally 9-metre-high and 1 m-wide stone wall, supported by a 50 m-wide earth rampart. The structure is dated to 3000 BC, the Ancient Egyptian Sadd-el-Kafara Dam at Wadi Al-Garawi, located about 25 km south of Cairo, was 102 m long at its base and 87 m wide. The structure was built around 2800 or 2600 BC as a dam for flood control. During the Twelfth Dynasty in the 19th century BC, the Pharaohs Senosert III, Amenemhat III, two dams called Ha-Uar running east-west were built to retain water during the annual flood and then release it to surrounding lands. The lake called Mer-wer or Lake Moeris covered 1,700 km2 and is today as Berkat Qaroun. One of the wonders of the ancient world was the Great Dam of Marib in Yemen. Repairs were carried out during various periods, most important around 750 BC and these extensive works were not actually finalized until 325 AD and allowed the irrigation of 25,000 acres. By the mid-late 3rd century BC, an intricate water-management system within Dholavira in modern-day India was built, the system included 16 reservoirs, dams and various channels for collecting water and storing it. Eflatun Pınar is a Hittite dam and spring temple near Konya and it is thought to be from the time of the Hittite empire between the 15th and 13th century BC

5. Пьяве – The Piave is a river in northern Italy. It begins in the Alps and flows southeast for 220 kilometres into the Adriatic Sea near the city of Venice, one of its tributaries is the Boite. In 1809 it was the scene of a battle during the Napoleonic Wars, in 1918, during World War I, it was the scene of Battle of the Piave River, the last major Austro-Hungarian attack on the Italian Front, which failed. The Battle of the Piave was the battle of World War I on the Italian Front. The river is called in Italy Fiume Sacro alla Patria and is mentioned in the patriotic song La leggenda del Piave. North of the city of Venice along the Piave river valley is the Denominazione di origine controllata zone that makes up the Veneto wine region known as the Piave DOC. Here both red and white wine is produced, mostly as varietal wines, with Merlot being the dominant grape of the region. Among the other grapes grown in the region are Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet franc, Pinot blanc, Pinot grigio, Pinot nero, Raboso, Friulano, Verduzzo Trevigiano and Verduzzo Friulano. The finished wines also must meet a minimum alcohol level—11. 5% for all varieties except Merlot and Friulano which only need to reach 11% alcohol by volume. A separate riserva bottling for the red varieties are permitted provided the wine is aged at least two years prior to release and attain a minimum alcohol level of at least 12. 5%. Site of italian newspaper Il Piave Official website of Consorzio Tutela Vini del Piave DOC - Consorzio Vini Venezia

6. Беллуно (провинция) – The Province of Belluno is a province in the Veneto region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Belluno and it has an area of 3,678 square kilometres and a total population of about 200,000. The province of Belluno is rather wide, and almost entirely occupied by mountain areas and it encompasses the natural and historical regions of Cadore, Feltrino, Alpago, Val di Zoldo, Agordino, Comelico and Ampezzano. The eastern part of the features the Dolomites, including the famous Tofane, Marmolada, Tre Cime di Lavaredo. The province is rich in water, with the presence of the wide Piave River, with its affluents Boite, the southern part is called Valbelluna, the widest and most populous valley of the province, which is bordered by the Venetian Prealps. The National Park of Belluno Dolomites is located in the province, the province of Bellunos climate is among the most severe in the Alps. It is mostly influenced by the continentally, provided by the Dolomites and it is similar to the eastern Tyrols climate. The summers are hot but not as hot as the valleys of the rivers Po, the hottest month’s average temperature is between 18 °C and 21 °C. This area, as most of the oriental Alps, is very wet, belluno’s precipitation average is above 1300 mm per year, snow is usual during all the winter months, and may occur even in March or November. Some years the winter may be due to the humidity, with averages around the freezing point. Main cities in area, Belluno, Feltre, Seren del Grappa. The midland’s valleys, between 700 m and 1500 m, which have a humid continental climate Dfb. This climate is severe in the extreme northern or southwestern regions of the province. Winter’s average temperature is between −7 °C and −5 °C in the North and Southwest during January, and between −5 °C and −3 °C around the central region. The coldest town, Santo Stefano di Cadore, at an elevation of only 900 meters, has temperature averages in January between −7 °C and −6 °C. Other towns of relatively low elevations have really low averages, which would be found only above 1700 meters in other Italians provinces, the snow season depends on the altitude. Between 700 and 1200 meters, from early November until the middle of March, the summer is usually wet and mild, but hotter than areas at the same altitude in the occidental valleys. In the lower lands temperature average around 16 °C or 17 °C, in higher lands average around 14 °C

7. Оползень – A landslide, also known as a landslip, is a form of mass wasting that includes a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep failure of slopes, and shallow debris flows. Landslides can occur underwater, called a submarine landslide, coastal, although the action of gravity is the primary driving force for a landslide to occur, there are other contributing factors affecting the original slope stability. Typically, pre-conditional factors build up specific sub-surface conditions that make the prone to failure. Landslides occur when the changes from a stable to an unstable condition. A change in the stability of a slope can be caused by a number of factors, slope material that becomes saturated with water may develop into a debris flow or mud flow. The resulting slurry of rock and mud may pick up trees, houses and cars, debris flow is often mistaken for flash flood, but they are entirely different processes. Muddy-debris flows in alpine areas cause severe damage to structures and infrastructure, muddy-debris flows can start as a result of slope-related factors and shallow landslides can dam stream beds, resulting in temporary water blockage. As the impoundments fail, an effect may be created, with a remarkable growth in the volume of the flowing mass. The solid–liquid mixture can reach densities of up to 2,000 kg/m3, for a small basin in the Italian Alps affected by a debris flow, estimated a peak discharge of 750 m3/s for a section located in the middle stretch of the main channel. At the same section, the maximum foreseeable water discharge, was 19 m3/s. Earthflows are downslope, viscous flows of saturated, fine-grained materials, typically, they can move at speeds from 0.17 to 20 km/h. Though these are a lot like mudflows, overall they are slow moving and are covered with solid material carried along by flow from within. They are different from fluid flows which are more rapid, clay, fine sand and silt, and fine-grained, pyroclastic material are all susceptible to earthflows. The velocity of the earthflow is all dependent on how much content is in the flow itself, if there is more water content in the flow. This thereby creates a bulging lobe which advances with a slow, as these lobes spread out, drainage of the mass increases and the margins dry out, thereby lowering the overall velocity of the flow. This process causes the flow to thicken, the bulbous variety of earthflows are not that spectacular, but they are much more common than their rapid counterparts. They develop a sag at their heads and are derived from the slumping at the source. Earthflows occur much more during periods of precipitation, which saturates the ground

8. Бьеф – A canal pound, reach, or level, is the stretch of level water impounded between two canal locks. Canal pounds can vary in length from the non-existent, where two or more immediately adjacent locks form a staircase, to many miles. Another long pound is on the Kennet and Avon Canal between Wootton Rivers Bottom Lock and Caen Hill top lock, the longest level on the Erie Canal in New York was the 60 mile level between Henrietta and Lockport. Pounds came into being with the development of pound locks to replace the flash locks. A key feature of pound locks was that the level between locks remained largely constant, as opposed to the variable levels created by the opening of flash locks. Making a channel that would not leak water is not easily done, gravel soil or light soil will leak for a few years until it settles and hardens. Puddle or clay would be used to line the channel, the Union Canal and the Schuylkill canal where the canal prism was blasted through limestone leaked so badly, they had to line the channel with timber. The Chesapeake and Ohio canal had frequent cave-ins due to limestone sinkholes near Shepherdstown,4, around Four Locks, Big pool, and Roundtop Hill near Dam No.6. After some years, the bed would settle and harden. One main concern to the engineer was the water supply. Pumping would contribute greatly to operating expense, especially at the summit level, feeder canals could be 20 to 30 miles in length, if needed. The canal bed would have to slope so that the water would not flow too fast down the canal and impede the progress of upstream boats. Rivers were often dammed to raise the waters height so that the canal could be fed, for instance, if a dam was not built, often water had to be pumped. The Chesapeake and Ohio put a steam pump near the South Branch, near mile 174 and this problem is particularly acute on summit pounds. Where ice would form during winter, the prism would usually be closed and drained. During this time, sand bars would be dug out, locks, exceptions to this would include wartime necessities, i. e. the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal was left open in the winters of 1861–1862 because of the American Civil War. His rounds were about 20 to 24 miles daily, muskrats would cause leaks by burrowing in the canal, as well as competitors such as stage coach lines or teamsters who would sabotage the canal by digging holes in the bank. These boats carried clay straw, takes, rope, wooden boards, for culverts and flood gates, a row of heavy planks, interlocked with tongue and groove, would be driven across the canal above and below the break, and would swell when wet

9. Серро, Мишель – Michel Serrault was a French stage actor and film star who appeared from 1954 until 2007 in more than 150 films. Although he wanted to be a clown, Serraults parents sent him to a seminary to study for the priesthood. He spent only a few months there before taking-up acting and his first professional job was in a touring production in Germany of Molières Les Fourberies de Scapin. After military service in Dijon, he returned to Paris and joined Robert Dherys burlesque troupe and appeared in their hit show. In 1948, he began his career in the theatre with Robert Dhéry in Les Branquignols, Les belles bacchantes, starring Robert Dhéry, Colette Brosset, and Louis de Funès, directed by Jean Loubignac in 1954. Serrault played in the 1955 suspense thriller Les Diaboliques, starring Simone Signoret and directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot. He met and worked with Jean Poiret in the early 1950s, which led to a song and comedy act and their playing together in 18 films from 1956 to 1984. The films they worked together in included Cette sacrée gamine, with Brigitte Bardot, from February 1973 through 1978, he portrayed the role of Albin/Zaza opposite Jean Poiret in the play La Cage aux Folles, written by Poiret. He recreated the role for the version of the play. Serrault died from relapsing polychondritis at his home in Équemauville on 29 July 2007 at age 79 and he was survived by his daughter, actress Nathalie Serrault. pt The Guardian Obituary Michel Serrault at Find a Grave

10. Отёй, Даниэль – Daniel Auteuil is a French actor and director who has appeared in a wide range of film genres, including period dramas, romantic comedies, and crime thrillers. In 1996, he won the Best Actor Award at the Cannes Film Festival together with Belgian actor Pascal Duquenne. He is also the winner of two César Award for Best Actor, one in 1987 as Ugolin Soubeyran in Jean de Florette and Manon des Sources, for his role in Jean de Florette, he also won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role. Auteuil is considered one of Frances most respected actors, Daniel Auteuil was born on 24 January 1950 in Algiers, French Algeria, the son of opera singers. He grew up in Avignon and Nancy, France and he began his acting career in musical comedy and made his film debut in 1972. Auteuils starring role in the drama film Jean de Florette. Auteuil has since become one of the best-known, best-paid and most popular actors in France, through his appearances in films including the swashbuckler Le bossu, the comedy The Closet, the romantic comedy After You. The thriller Caché and the comedy My Best Friend, he has gained greater international recognition. In 2013, Auteuil was selected as a member of the competition jury at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival. He married Aude Ambroggi, a Corsican sculptor, on 22 July 2006 in Porto-Vecchio, Daniel Auteuil at the Internet Movie Database Daniel Auteuil at AllMovie

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Невинным жертвам долины Вайонт (Италия) посвящается...

Невинным жертвам долины Вайонт (Италия) посвящается...

Когда я посмотрела фильм, снятый на основе реальных событий, я плакала… от глупой и гнусной человеческой натуры… от неспособности любить, уважать, сострадать и просто ценить жизнь человека… любого… со всеми его достоинствами и недостатками… Я искренне верю, что виновные понесли наказания… и если не судебного, то самого страшного — наказания своей совестью...

Плотина Вайонт: цунами на земле

Человек давно обуздал силу воды, и сейчас сотни ГЭС по всей земле ежесекундно даруют нам тысячи мегаватт энергии. Но мы слишком самонадеянны и не всегда осознаем, какую мощь заковываем в бетонные плотины, и тогда вода становится трагедией, подобных которой никогда не было. Именно так произошло поздним вечером 9 октября 1963 года на плотине Вайонт в Италии – эта катастрофа навсегда останется в памяти людей, как одна из самых разрушительных.

Объект: плотина Вайонт, река Вайонт, провинция Беллуно, Италия.

Вайонт – арочная плотина, построенная из бетона в узком ущелье рядом с горой Монте Ток. Высота плотины достигает 261,6 м, длина по верхнему краю – 190 м, толщина плотины у основания достигает 23 м, толщина по гребню – не более 3,9.

Дата: 9 октября 1963 года, 22.35 местного времени

Жертв: от 1900 до 2500 человек.

Причины

Трагедия на плотине Вайонт – яркий пример того, как сочетание множества малозаметных природных факторов, ошибок людей и элементарной человеческой жадности может привести к катастрофе со страшным исходом.Причины аварии на плотине Вайонт условно можно разделить на две категории: чисто «технические» и «человеческие». Все началось с того, что люди не совсем верно выбрали место для строительства плотины, затем выяснилось, что это место геологически нестабильно (здесь часто происходили слабые землетрясения и оползни). Но компания, строившая плотину, закрывала на все глаза и продолжала работы, так как это сулило немалые барыши.

Наконец, наступило дождливое лето 1963 года, и к осени вода с неба вызвала никем непредвиденные последствия: случился оползень. И не просто оползень – в воду сползла часть горы Монте Ток, которая заполнила чашу водохранилища, и колоссальное количество воды буквально «выплеснулось» из плотины.

Как выяснилось позже, между сползшим слоем горы и нижележащими породами находилась тонкая прослойка глины, которая из-за обильных дождей стала скользкой и потеряла способность удерживать миллионы тонн горных пород. В результате целый пласт горы по глине, как по маслу, сполз в воду.

Так что непосредственная причина трагедии – чудовищный по масштабам оползень, возникновение которого было обусловлено геологическими особенностями местности и обильными дождями. А люди ради своих выгод уверяли, что никакой опасности нет.

Хроника

Было бы неправильно начинать описание катастрофы с 22.35 часов 9 октября 1963 года – в эти минуты произошла только развязка трагедии, а все, что привело к ней, происходило на протяжении предыдущих лет.

Строительство плотины началось в 1957 году, а в 1959 были замечены первые оползни. Тогда вспомнили об опасениях геологов, которые еще до начала строительства высказывали сомнение в целесообразности возведения в этом месте большого гидротехнического сооружения. Но работы продолжились.

Оползни и подвижки грунта наблюдались и во все последующие годы, причем с окончанием строительства (1959 год) и с началом заполнения водохранилища водой (с 1960 года) положение только усугублялось. Инженеры компании SADE (которая строила плотину) неоднократно изучали проблемные участки, и в 1962 году пришли к выводу, что в ближайшем будущем может произойти катастрофа. Однако высшее начальство не придало значения словам инженеров.

Наконец, 15 сентября 1963 года произошла первая серьезная подвижка склона горы Ток. В начале октября склон сполз на целый метр, и только тогда было принято решение постепенно понижать уровень воды, который тогда превышал 250 метров. И, несмотря на реальную угрозу, жители близлежащих деревень, которые могли пострадать в случае аварии, не были предупреждены об опасности.

А в 22.35 часов 9 октября 1963 года склон горы Монте Ток длиной 2 км и шириной почти километр с оглушительным шумом сполз в чашу водохранилища. Пласт горных пород объемом около 260 миллионов кубометров за 45 секунд полностью погрузился в воду, наполнив собой водохранилище до отметки 170 метров.

Вода, в считанные секунды вытесненная из водохранилища колоссальной массой, поднялась на 250 метров над уровнем плотины (так что всплеск почти на полкилометра вздымался над уровнем долины), и через мгновение обрушилась в ущелье, создав волну высотой 90 метров. Это была не просто волна, а сейша — особая волна, которая формируется в ограниченном пространстве (каким являлось ущелье), и обладает высотой, значительной превышающей высоты обычных волн.

Чудовищная волна, двигаясь со скоростью до 12 м/с (около 40 км/ч), сносила все на своем пути, и даже понижение ее высоты до 20 метров при выходе из ущелья не спасло от гибели жителей лежащих в долине деревень.

Все кончилось очень быстро, уже через 7 минут не существовало пяти деревень, а через полчаса в долине царила тишина. А сама долина превратилась в огромное грязевое озеро.

Последствия

Всего за семь минут вода произвела чудовищные по масштабам разрушения. Волна полностью разрушила пять деревень в долине реки Пьяве (Вилланова, Лонгароне, Пираджо, Ривальта и Фаз), а также подвергла серьезным разрушением еще несколько населенных пунктов. В потоках грязи, камней и воды погибло от 1900 до 2500 человек (некоторые источники говорят о 3000 жертв).

Значительные разрушения нанес и образовавшиеся из-за оползня и всплеска воздушная ударная волна и вихрь. Хотя ветер сложно сравнить со сметающей все на своем пути водой.

Но у трагедии на плотине Вайонт были и совершенно неожиданные последствия. Например, благодаря катастрофе в этом регионе началась бурная индустриализация, так как пострадавшие районы получили множество экономических льгот. А правительство Италии и компания SADE долго вели ожесточенные споры, которые прекратились после осуждения (на очень малые сроки) нескольких инженеров. Через пять лет катастрофа унесла еще одну жертву – один из ведущих инженеров под тяжестью вины покончил жизнь самоубийством.

Изначально рядом с плотиной планировалось построить ГЭС (а позже возвести целый каскад плотин), однако от этого проекта по понятным причинам отказались.

Современное положение

Из-за необычного характера катастрофы плотина практически не пострадала (вода только размыла около метра верхней кромки плотины), и она сейчас прочно стоит на своем месте, хотя и не эксплуатируется. А с 2002 года на плотину стали пускать туристов – место одной из самых страшных катастроф на гидротехнических сооружениях пользуется большой популярностью.

(взято из материалов сайта)

Храни вас Господь!

P.S. Про катастрофу на плотине Вайонт в 2001 году был снят художественный фильм «Вайонт — безумие людей» / «Vajont — La diga del disonore»

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